Essay: The origin of the Nogorno-Karabagh conflict

The geopolitical aspects of the Nagorno-Karabakh have the closely connection with the position of Russia. The roots of the conflict date back to the policy of ‘Great ??dea’of Russian empirea and the annextion of the region, including the intention of movement. The Russian empire had need a social support to secure its territorial integrity and security after the annextion of the region. Thus, the Armenians could be a great collabiration for the empire, because they had proved theirs loyalty at the Great Peter’s marches. Thats why, the increasing of the magnititude of a chiristian population, namely the Armenians were a real base for these intention in the future. By the movement of Armenian population with Turkmanchai and Edirne agreement and also the annexing of these territories under the control of the tsarist Russian empire, the region and its population were targeted to use influential tool within the framework of its security interest, in addition, such as a support against the threat of Eastern and Western Turkic’s world. Due to the fact, the Russian empire was conscious the Ottoman empire and its policy of the becoming of a great leader of Turkic’s world under the ‘Turanian state’ . Because of the significant importance of the region, the region had been a combat zone both the Russian empire and Ottoman Empire. After the World War I, these intentions continued such as a new phase, including ‘Enver Pasha, the Ottoman Minister of War, stressed that Azerbaijan was the object of Ottoman aims. His intention was to create a great ‘Turanian state’ by uniting the Ottoman Turks with the peoples of Turkic origin of the Caucasus, the Volga basin and Central Asia.’ As I above-mentioned, these threats weren’t coincidence with the geopolitical interests of the Russian empire thats why after the sovietization of Azerbaijan and Armenia by Boslheviks, they incited the nationalist claims of the armenian population of Nogorno Karabagh for keeping it influential tool by using this way, but the hidden ways, although the Marxist-Leninist ideology abolished the nationalist frames.

The Nogorno-Karabagh conflict entered to a new phase with the first Russian-Persian war. ‘The Russo-Persian peace treaty was concluded at Gulistan in 1813, by which the Persians ceded to the Russians all the territory of the Arax and Kur Rivers except for Yerevan and Nakhichevan.’ Both Gulistan and Turkmanchai treaties established a new confrontation between Azerbaijan and Armenian population over the terrritorial claims in the peripheries of the empire..

In the second half of 1980s, by the spreading of the waves of ‘glasnost’ and ‘perestroika’ policy brought back the nationalist ideas , territorial demands to a new phase over the peripheries of the Soviet Union. ‘The Soviet President’s efforts at restructuring failed to overcome the innate conservatism of the system and keep pace with the glasnost-fueled explosion of national sentiment.’ The declaration of unification revealed the hidden nationalist and territorial hostilities of the Armenians over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.The declaration of unification was rejected by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, the Superme Soviet of Nogorno Karabagh decleared its secession from Azerbaijan SSR and the conflict started to escelate to the level of an armed war.

By the collapse of the Soviet Union, the political choas enveloped all peripheries of the Union, including Azerbaijan. The Armenian troops started to occupy the Karabagh and its adjesent territory one by one in 1992. On february 26, These lands witnessed an new genocide which was intended to the Azerbaijan population of Khojaly. ‘Khojaly was the victim of ethnic cleansing of the worst kind. A great part of the civilian population of the town, numbering 7000 before the attack, was mutilated and killed, and the remaining population was forced to flee over the mountains to seek refuge.’ Following, the numerous of territories were occupied by the armenian forces, including Susha, Khojavend, ‘Lachin corridor’ and so on.
In 1994, by the mediation efforts of Russia the ceasfire agreement signed between the sides in the Bishkek. According to the Bishkek protocol, the sides agreed to stop the armed confrontation . Nevertheless, the armed confrontation between the sides continues on the front-line and the information of soldier and civil deaths continues to sound from the front line. ‘As Armenian forces advanced, 1 million Azeri Internally Displaced Person (IDPs) fled to other parts of Azerbaijan, most of them still living in the camps for displaced persons.’ The settlment of the matter of the internally displaced persons or refugees is still problem for the Azerbaijan government and it creates an unsettled situation for the security and humanitarian issues according to the international law and human rights.

Source: Essay UK -

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