In what ways have our historic roots affected the manner in which criminal investigations are conducted in the United States today?
The historic of the law enforcement had a lot of effects on our criminal investigations runs today. It all started in the year of 1253 in the London where the criminal justice roots began with the Watch of London and how they protected the streets at night.
Henry Fielding created ‘The Bow Street Runners’ they were our first modern police force. He had them wear uniform and go through training where they will gain special skills to use when they were are duty. But by the time 1829 came The Bow Runners had gain a bad reputation for not be able to do their job correctly. Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel replace The Bow Runners with the London Metropolitan Police Department. These police were known as the Bobbies and was England’s first paid full time police force.
Sir Robert has established 12 principles for the Bobbies and those principles still stand with the law enforcement today. They are:
1. Need to be organized
2. Need to be under government control
3. The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of the police
4. Distribution of crime new is essential
5. The police will move like the military with time and strength
6. Keep their temper under control
7. Good appearance commands respect
8. Securing and training the right person is the key for efficiency
9. Public security demands that every police officer have a number
10. Police headquarters should be centrally located for accessibility
11. Police should be hired on probationary basis and finally
12. Police recordkeeping in necessary
In 1824 there was another department created with in the police department it was the detective bureau but in London they are called Scotland Yard. Scotland Yard was the first one to start using fingerprints in the criminal investigation. They also got a few ideas from the French to help to identify criminals they were: Look at the physical characteristics such as eye color, skeletal size, ear shape.
The 19th Century America started facing their own problems with crimes in the cities with the fast growth, Protestant ‘Catholic violence and with the two social movement the Reformatory and the Progressive Movements, spurred a need for more law enforcement. In 1870 most all of the major cities in America had their own police department. Plus more law enforcement was created like the County Sheriffs they helped in rural areas, the Texas Ranger, The U.S. Marshall Service and the Secret Service. Then finally came the Federal Bureau of Investigation aka FBI.
The Federal Bureau of Investigations was created in 1908. When they started the had very little of responsibility but during Prohibition, the mobster and bootleggers was turning the police man bad by corrupting the police officers by m