Management is defined as the art of getting things done through people. Management involves overseeing and coordinating the work of others, so that their activities are completed effectively and efficiently.
In the modern era of globalization industries do not want to remain indigenous. Different organizations are thriving to be global and execute their business in different countries and some of them are succeeding in their pursuit. This involves dissolution of cultural boundaries to result inter mixing of cultures; this demand gives the need a leader who is culturally sensitive and can understand others culture as well. In other words the leader with the high cultural intelligence (CQ) is needed.
Employees can only be able to deal with diversity only when they feel happy and satisfied with their job. Also when they enjoy different varities in their job and feel safe in their work place. In today’s world with increasing pressure and competition, employees don’t enjoy their work. They feel suffocated and not able to perform and achieve their goals. To develop a manager or an employee who is culturally intelligent. It is important to identify that employees consider themselves gainfully employed or not. When an individual is satisfied with his job then only he can take that extra effort to understand diversity and tries to learn deal effectively with it.
Cultural intelligence as described by the (Ang, Dyne, and Koh, 2005; Earley & Ang, 2003,Mosakowski, and Earley 2005) ‘is a person’s capability to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity. CQ is the critical capability that enhances manager, employees and organizational effectiveness. It also helps in enhancing of interpersonal interactions in a wide range of social contexts.’
The term and the concept of the cultural intelligence were first used by the Ang and Earley . In their book ‘cultural intelligence: individual interactions across culture.’
The frame work of the Cultural intelligence is based on the Detterman’s & Sternberg (1986) integration of the various loci of intelligence residing within the individual. Applying Sternberg’s theory of multiple loci of intelligence, Ang and Earley (2003) conceptualized Cultural intelligence in four dimensions which comprises of metacognitive CQ (Strategy CQ), motivational CQ ( knowledge CQ), cognitive CQ and behavioural CQ with specific relevance to functioning in culturally diverse settings.
Metacognitive CQ also known as strategy CQ reflects the ability of the individual’s mental processes that he uses to acquire and understand cultural knowledge, which includes the knowledge and control over the individual thought processes that are relating to different culture. Individuals with the high Strategy CQ or metacognitive CQ are aware of others’ cultural preferences not only during the interactions but also before the interaction. They not only tries to be aware of others cultural preferences but also tries to question cultural assumptions and are able to adjust their mental model after and during the interactions.
Cognitive CQ also referred as Knowledge CQ reflects the individuals knowledge of norms, practices, and their conventions in different cultures, which they acquired from personal experiences and education. This knowledge includes knowledge of legal differences, interpersonal ability and sociolinguistic systems of different cultures and subcultures and also this includes the ability to understand the basic of frameworks of cultural values. People with high knowledge CQ or cognitive CQ understands similarities and the differences across cultures.
Motivational CQ the third dimension of cultural intelligence is the capability of the individual to direct energy and attention toward learning about the functioning in situations that are characterized by cultural diversity. Individual those are with high motivational CQ direct attention and energy toward culturally diverse situations, and also they are confidence in their cross-cultural effectiveness
Behavioral CQ the fourth dimension of cultural intelligence is the ability to reflect the individual’s capability to exhibit appropriate verbal and nonverbal actions when he or she is interacting with client from different cultures. Individual those are with high behavioral CQ shows behaviours appropriate to the situations based on their broad range of verbal and nonverbal capabilities, such as the use of culturally appropriate words, tone, gesture and facial expressions.
BENEFITS OF CQ
If the individual is culturally intelligent then it not only helps him in his professional life but develop his overall personality. If the individual is culturally intelligent they he or she enjoys many benefits.
‘ When the individual is high on any one dimension of CQ then it gives him the insight that helps him to capitalize his strengths.
‘ Knowledge of CQ can also help the individual to become more knowledgeable, strategic, flexible and motivated.
‘ It enhances the culturally sensitivity of the individual
‘ It helps in the reducing the use of stereotypes.
‘ It also improves the work performance, decision making and judgement of the individual.
‘ It also helps the individual to understand his or her strengths and weaknesses.
‘ It also helps the individual to understand the others culture and there sociolinguistic system.
‘ The major benefit of understanding CQ that it helps in self development.
‘ People with high CQ are also able to understand cultural norms and practices of others which help them to deal with diversity effectively.
‘ People with high CQ are also able to understands the differences and the similarities across cultures and able to deal with the differences.
‘ The individual with high CQ are also able to act appropriately according to the situations.
As the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between the CQ and Gainful employment it is important to get the better understanding of gainful employment