Work with its different levels forms the most important elements of the production as it consider the item able create interaction among other items of production in order to create commodity production and services. the labor force is a necessary activity for economic development and overall progress in any country in the field of economic , political and social , because its productivity factor forms the main determinate of the competitiveness of any company . With this in mind workforce gaining great importance in the process of economic and social development in any country. According to the rates of economic growth in various countries around the world and decreasing rates of GDP in some countries of the world especially the third world countries as a result of current economic conditions and prevailing operating policies emerged the unemployment phenomenon. Unemployment is one of the most prominent and the most serious problems breakdown the progress and increasing feeling of worrying and lack of social and economic security, therefore it is a need to recognize the necessity of the causes leading to an increase in unemployment rates.
When Saudi Arabia began the process of prosperity before three decades has led to the overall expansion in all sectors, especially education institutions, including universities, therefore it has absorbed all of the public and private sector graduates during that period. In the other hand the increase in number of graduates significantly without a change in the opportunities provided by the public and private sector leads to unemployment.
4.2 T306 concepts to be used
There are many different concepts that learned from studying of the T306, these tools and concepts help system practitioners in order to understand and analysis of any situation in the aim of finding solutions to these situations. Every problem requires certain special methods, concepts or techniques to understand and analyze it well to find the suitable solutions. In the unemployment problem, I will use Hard System Method ‘HSM’, BECM approach, influence diagram, system map and spray diagram to explain and analyze the problem and help in finding the most appropriate solutions.
4.2.1 BECM approach
BECM is a reflection of being, engaging, contextualizing and managing features which should be understand by system practitioners in order to able to analyze any problem. Being characteristic can be defined as that the system practitioner should focus on the situation and make him as a part of it by using his knowledge and his ethics of action and responsibility. Engaging characterizes means that the system practitioner should use his experience in order to determine either the situation is complex or messy. Contextualizing features mean that the system practitioner should determine the way to solve the problem by using his learning skills. Managing characteristic means that the system practitioner has to apply the solution on the problem and control its performance.
4.2.2 The reason of applying (HSM)
In the most time of such a situation it has to analyze in order to find the most suitable solutions, it’s not a mess it is a problematic difficulty that could be deal with by parts rather than wholes.
The most characteristics of using HSM are providing the whole understand of complex problem like the unemployment in a society and its effects on it.
4.2.3 Hard System Method (HSM)
As a result of being a problematic problem, unemployment and its effects on the society can be analyzed by Hard System Method (HSM). According to the characteristics of the HSM approach it is able to analyze the complex situation by using different steps, these steps are interrelated a depending on each other:
188.8.131.52 Stage 1: systems description
Unemployment is defined as the inability to absorb or use human energies offered in the labor market that depends on supply and demand, which is influenced by the decisions of employers and workers. Unemployment influences the economy by different ways. It decreases the ability of consumers to spend on everything, which leads to making business to sell less and make less profit. In the other hand it affects the mental health of the unemployed people, beside other health problems leads to higher costs for low cost medical facilities and insurance companies.
High rate of unemployment
Low proportion of operating
Low rate of growth
this relationship explain that there is a significant correlation between high rates of unemployment and low rates of economic growth , this relationship exp[lain the high correlation between growth and changes rates of unemployment , where it indicates that the recession is consistent with the growth rate of low or negative rate of increase unemployment .
184.108.40.206 Stage 2: identification of objectives and constraints
This stage of research focus on the research objective, trying to find more information about unemployment in KSA and its effects on economy, it reasons, helping in reach to solutions. Therefore the most important objectives of this research are:
Determining the concept of unemployment of university graduates.
Identifying the reasons for increasing rates of unemployment among university graduates (male, female).
Helping to find suitable solutions to this problem.
Allocating the effects of unemployment problem in Saudi society in all fields.
Working to reduce the unemployment rate in the community.
Advancement of society for the better.
Developing the educational level.
The causes of widespread of unemployment in the Saudi society are many different challenges that hinder working and continuation of the production process from these constraints:
Higher rate of population.
High illiteracy rates.
Deterioration of the quality of education.
Low industrial skills.
Retardation level of research and development activities.
Business trends unbiased toward administrative functions and reduce of manual labor.
Inexperience of the private sector.
Low participation of the private sector in development.
Decline in regional cooperation efforts in the region.
An imbalance in the balance of supply and demand in favor of expats in Saudi labor market.
Almost complete absence of effective institutions specialized to attract and guide the rehabilitation and follow up national competencies that have a desire to work in the private sector in Saudi Arabia.
Focusing on the policy of Saudi economy growing on the growth and evolution of the first place regardless of the percentage contribution of national employment in the labor market.
Continuation of Saudi society in reliance on foreign labor in most of the work.
220.127.116.11 Stage 3: generation of routs to objectives
Routes to objectives:
Rationalize the use of foreign labor by confined to specific occupations.
Work on the application of the minimum wage in order to pay the private sector to employ the national workforce.
Benefit from foreign direct investment and the creation of productive jobs.
Focus on arts projects and productivity is relatively labor intensive.
Working in developing a modern database of labor force includes basic classifications and braving.
Enhancing the process of continuous training, especially training and qualifying investment.
Supporting the continuing education of the workforce, especially those without a high school diploma.
As a result of high proportion of women’s representation in the population structure, and limited employment options available to them at the present time, the opportunity to be in front of her even more to contribute to the work force.
Encouraging investments that lead to an increase of factories and projects, thereby increasing employment opportunities.
Elimination the problem of population explosion that swallows all development efforts.
Improving the educational system, which provides skilled workers trained.
Encouraging small projects of industrial, agricultural and service sectors, and supported by the state to encourage young people to demand for these new areas.
Encourage self-employment for a change of mind that prevailed is that the government is responsible for the operation of the graduates.
Improving economic system.
18.104.22.168 Stage 4: formulating measures of performance
The measures must be derived from the objectives. To find the best route to our objectives we need to optimize our measures. we can measure the performance of the unemployment problem through doing some specific research of economic and statistical models to estimate the standard, formulation of the standard model and unemployment rate appreciation, measuring the inflation rate as one of influenced item by unemployment, making study the evolution of explanatory variables such as (the size of the total population, size of public expenditure GDP) and study the evaluation of unemployment rates.
By other words making some studies and researches that help in measuring the performance such as:
We can measure performance by the university graduates.
We can measure the performance by measuring the educational level.
We can measure the performance through the rates of workers quarterly.
We can measure the performance through rates of foreignn labor annually .
22.214.171.124 Stage 5: modeling
By calculating the amount of unemployed people over the past years and comparing those to recent years upon Saudi management has been in charge and the numbers will indicate that there is something changed in the environment. This change leads to providing more jobs in the public and private sectors and work on reapplying and redesigning the environment which was back at that period of time and this stage of procedure would require an evaluation in some specific areas.
126.96.36.199 Stage 6: evaluation
This stage involves assessment of the models or assessment of the potential outcomes of taking the various routs to the objectives, in terms of the measures of performance.
By other words, it is the turn of evaluation and measurement process of the routs which were created previously against the designed model for following the rates of unemployment of the past years and comparing it with years after with the work composition, benefit and environment at each period of time in mind.
188.8.131.52 Stage 7: choice of route(s) to objectives
In this stage a choice of route to objective must be made, the Saudi state should intensify efforts in order to eliminate unemployment through the help of expertise and competence people to deal with this problem and to transform from recession to recovery, the most potential important solutions are:
Expansion in the policies of training and retraining for the unemployed in order to help them in developing their skills and abilities.
Encouraging early retirement in order to provide new jobs rather than those who were referred to the pension.
Encouraging small and medium enterprises and the informal sector projects and remove all obstacles hinder them.
Focus on arts projects and productivity which are relatively labor intensive.
Saudi government should be more concerning with establishing plans for economic and social development and job creation in front of all the real capable and willing it.
Rationalizing the use of foreign labor through confined to specific jobs.
Work on the application of the minimum wage in order to pay the private sector foe the employment of national power.
Encouraging citizens to accept the simple act.
184.108.40.206 Stage 8: implementation
In this stage is consider as approval for applying the new strategies and solutions it has to be done slowly and in a step by step shifting mode to adapt the new changes and engage with the new functions applied .
As a practitioner of project management, I am committed to doing what is right and honorable. I set some certain standards for my project in order to present it in a professional way; therefore I present the stakeholder in the situation of unemployment in Saudi Arabia by making some interviews. All information gathered from websites (books, references) is consideration as protection to get ethical decision making process that contain:
Identify the problem.
Determine the nature and dimension of the problem.
Generate potential courses of action.
Explain the consequences of all options.
Evaluate the selected course of action.
Implement the course of action.