Attitudes Of Third Level College Team Sport Players Regarding Alcohol Consumption

This chapter gives an outline to the research methods undertaken to investigate and finalise this study. Primary and secondary resources were used to gather the information required for this research study. Secondary research is research and information gathered from past literature, publications, the media and other sources. Secondary information is generally easier to gather than primary research, because with primary research you have to come into contact with people and interact with them to get the information required. Primary research can be generated through meetings, interviews, surveys and focus groups and can be done in a reasonably short space of time at a low cost.
3.2 Sources of Data
Internet
The internet was used to look at information to get an understanding and background on the chosen topic. There were a few sites that were of particular use, such as the IT Sligo Library website as it provided a lot of good articles on the topic; The HSE website and the house of oireachtas were also very helpful. The internet provided a lot of background information and was also very helpful for searching contacts of people.
Interview
The interview was done to get a general background and insight into the kind of situations the IT Sligo counsellor has with sports athletes with regards to alcohol consumption. The interview was conducted through email, as the counsellor was hard to reach in person.
Library
For this research study the library provided really good access to books, previous studies and publications, it also was a really good place to work on the study with top facilities.
Questionnaire
The last piece of data to be collected was the questionnaire; this type of data collection is useful for any number of respondents and can be used to collect qualitative and quantitative data. The questionnaire was used to find out what makes sports athletes consume/ binge high levels of alcohol.
3.3 Research Design
Exploratory design- This level of research can be described as exploratory due to it not being a prevalent investigation there is insufficient material to work from on our specific question of the misuse of alcohol within sporting teams in third level education. It is envisaged that this study will lead in a direction for future research in this line of study.
Descriptive design provides data about the population being studied, it can't give the cause of the problem but it can't give other answers to this research study, through a survey it will show up occurrences that can be calculated up to an average result. In this research we describe current findings on alcohol rates and how they relate to our studies. This particular level of research design should answer the basic questions needed to continue our research and contribute important recommendations.

Casual design is an investigation into certain variables which can determine the cause of certain behaviours, this type of research will identify why sports athletes consume high levels of alcohol. This will help supply the research with changes that will occur with assumptions and links between young people and alcohol for one example.
3.4 Type of research
The type of research with the study is both qualitative as the students surveyed reflect on drinking attitudes and their perception of over indulgence of drinking, it is also quantitative as peoples age and gender are taken into consideration. For the proposal there is a deductive approach made as the data will be collected and results analysed and presented. This will establish a range of ideas and outcomes based on the given data regarding age and gender of the students. According to Creswell (2009) qualitative research deals with an interview/discussion group providing insights into the setting of a problem as well as gain an understanding of underlying reasons and incentive. Quantitative research assesses data and derives results from a sample population. It measures the rate of views and opinions in a sample number this number can be obtained through a structured technique such as questionnaire online or filled out by hand or a face to face interview. This is a large number of cases which represents the population of interest. The outcome of a quantitative research is to achieve the final objective of a study.
3.5 Research questions
Principle research question - An examination into the attitude of third level college team sport players regarding alcohol consumption.
Secondary research questions
i. What are the government policies and programmes in relation to alcohol consumption?
ii. What are the alcohol consumption levels amongst college based students both here in Ireland and abroad?
iii. Is the broader culture of alcohol consumption in Ireland affecting college based athletes?
iv. To examine the attitudes and motivations of non-drinking athletes with regards to athletic performance?
v. To examine the attitudes and motivations of drinking athletes with regards to athletic performance?
vi. To examine the policies and programmes of the relevant national governing bodies?
3.6 Measures
We are measuring the exploitation of alcohol and attitudes towards the consumption and over indulgence of alcohol with sporting teams in third level colleges.
The measures being used is of questionnaire format where the participants answer questions in regards to the level of their participation in sport within the college. Once an outcome of the detail of the sports they play and at what level are given there will then be follow up questions of how often they drink and to how much they drink on a given time. This then produces us with the foundation of our report and from then on it will be of more specific questions asked to narrow down the parameters of our questionnaire and this will highlight our main research question and what is asked.
A questionnaire is being used due to the fact a large amount of information can be gathered in a short space of time. The results are easily then compiled into groups pending on the selections made by the participants. When data has been quantified, it can be used to compare our facts to the overall drinking pattern and establish how this compares to other figures.
3.7 Sampling Technique
The research participants are in third level education at I.T. Sligo and they represent the college in sporting fixtures throughout the academic year. The type of sampling we chose to do is probability sampling this is selected in a way which means they are a representative of the population they reflect the characteristics of the students in college that participate in sports.
We targeted our selected number of students who participate in sport through emails and one on one asking them to fill out our survey online. They have been reached through the college email system and Facebook group pages asking them to fill out our survey, for example going onto the I.T. Sligo hurling page and asking them to participate in the survey. In the questionnaire the given sport was asked so numbers were achieved from their sporting background in which they compete. Since most players are duel playing e.g. they play more than one sport we asked them to select the main sport for data compilation.
Research Participants
Arrangements through clubs management may were made to gain access to the whole team so everybody knows the questionnaire is there to be filled out. Sports development officers were contacted to highlight it to all sporting students. These arrangements are achievable as it requires through email and talking face to face to people. The questionnaire to be completed should take approximately 4-6 minutes to complete as it is a question given with a multiple choice order and they have to take which one suits them.
This amount of time is very practical because if a survey took much longer to complete it might deter people from doing it because of not having enough time to complete it. This amount of time is realistic because it is just ticking which selection is the appropriate one for the participant.
To eliminate bias there will be generalized questions that aren't tied down to one sport such as a GAA question a person playing soccer could not relate to. To improve response rates it may be prepared that it is sent out to personally to the clubs. Keep the first number of questions simple to answer so it won't deter them from filling out the questionnaire. Reminder emails may be sent to remind students to take them for example if they receive an email while doing college work they may not take the time to complete it but if its sent on a Friday they might remember to take it at the weekend when they have some free time.

3.8 Methods
An online questionnaire will be the method used to collect the data and for analyses purpose it may be done online for example it puts all the age group of 18-21 year olds in one group and 21 and over's in another then it will break down what sports they participate in.
This is the most appropriate method due to the fact it is the most efficient way to reach our target participants. The results are easily compiled and analysed because it is done through computers, and the chosen methods correspond with the future research objectives.
The methods of this study are achievable and when all the research is compiled it will then explain our research question and either highlight the problems that revolve around students drinking while taking part in sporting teams.
The proposed instrumentation;
The instrumentation available to use is, Survey Monkey it is the chosen method of data analysis. This has been chosen because it is one of the best methods of surveying people and is highly recommended by companies for research purposes. It is possible to view and analyse the survey at any given time so this means it is simple to see how many people have taken part in our survey and if the numbers are sufficient. With the access of Microsoft excel, this can be used to construct data charts.
3.9 Procedures
The procedure is as follows: Once all the surveys have been completed and a target quota of people have been reached, the results are then analysed splitting groups into different age categories and the different sports that they compete in. Once a drinking pattern has been established the main target of the proposal is then reached as an examination has been undertaken to establish the drinking pattern attitudes are then founded to state if Irish students have a drinking habit that prevent them from excelling at the sport they compete in.

3.10 Limitations
The limitations of the research study are;
Analysis, as this is the first research project undertaken, time constraints with other projects and exams, the cost of printing and using other software to analyse data, reluctance of students participating in the survey, and not getting a true response from the surveys as its alcohol and participants might not give true accounts of their alcohol consumption. The Easter holidays was also a bit of a restriction on the study as questionnaires had to be sent out well before then as, so they could be analysed and compiled in the results section of the study, as the deadline is after the Easter holidays.
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2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
Literature reviewed for this dissertation is based on the attitudes of 3rd level college team sport players regarding alcohol consumption. For many years now Ireland is known for its high consumption of alcoholic beverages with its popular pub culture. In a publication by the European commission in 2010 the prevalence of binge drinking in Ireland is the highest at 44%, also 25% of young people in the EU are more likely to consume 1-5 drinks of alcohol in a week, this puts people in high risk of binge drinking related health problems.
2.1.1Why do it?
The interest in this dissertation comes from the widely publicized area of alcohol consumption in Ireland. From the participation of team sports in a college environment peer pressure is a common phrase used when talking about alcohol, but because it's a college environment the consumption of alcohol is a norm and will be discussed.
Arguments and evidence will be researched and shown towards the attitudes of 3rd level college team sport players regarding alcohol consumption. Literature reviewed from past studies will show alcohol consumption levels amongst college based students both here in Ireland and abroad. The research undertaking will investigate the broader culture of alcohol consumption in Ireland affecting college based athletes.
The research will also investigate the government policies and programmes in relation to alcohol consumption and examine the policies and programs of the relevant national governing bodies. An investigation will also be carried out on the attitudes and motivations of drinking/non-drinking athletes with regards to athletic performance.
2.1.2What is it?
According to Kingsland et al 2013 p2: Alcohol consumption seems to be a clear problem and causes acute harm in most countries, alcohol consumption is linked to more than 60 types of injury, chronic diseases, alcohol is the cause of 3.2 % of deaths worldwide and is the cause of 4% of accidents that ends up in life with a disability. The cost of alcohol consumption/abuse in economic terms is quite significant, for example in America the cost of alcohol abuse is 2.7% of the country's GDP, studies have shown and identified a relationship between sport, alcohol indulgence and alcohol self related harm among sporting communities and elite players. For example studies investigated in England and New Zealand have found that excessive levels of alcohol consumption is among people linked to sporting communities than of the general community. Another study was carried out on community football clubs and cricket clubs in Australia showed that 48% of players would consume four or more drinks at least once a month at their club. A similar high amount of alcohol consumption has being identified with Gaelic footballers in Ireland, with 54% having 6 or more drinks at least once a week, this is considered to be binge drinking . Reasons as to why these sporting communities consume such high levels of alcohol have being identified and include; that excessive drinking is accepted and is even expected as a ritual that is associated with sporting occasions, another is alcohol promotion and marketing targeted at specific sports and also the consumption of alcohol as a barrier to deal with the stress of sport.

According to Trinity College Dublin, in partnership with the HSE. (Dublin, November 19th, 2010); this research report carried out an in-depth investigation into the alcohol use and drinking patterns of 960 GAA players across Ireland. To date it is the largest study ever taken on alcohol consumption levels among sports people in Ireland. The research gathered found that the alcohol consumption levels of GAA players was the highest than those found in a nationally represented sample of males of the same age, and that more than half of the players observed participating in binge drinking. The findings of the research highlighted that more than 90% of the members were drinkers, 31% are said to have consumed more than the recommended limit of 21 drinks per week, 54% are reported to be consuming 6 or more drinks in a row at least once a week, this is considered as binge drinking, 87.6% of the players have experienced one drink-related harm in the last 12 months due to the high amounts of alcohol they have consumed, a common experience among the players was the regular binge drinking when they were under the legal age of 18 to consume their first drink, the players who reported regular binge drinking were associated with alcohol related harms such as being in a fight and that alcohol affected their work/study performances.
According to Partington S, (aug2013) p8,10,12: the aim of this article was to examine the difference in alcohol consumption of sports teams in UK Universities to students who don't participate in sport in UK Universities. A second aim was to compare the alcohol consumption levels and alcohol related harm of athletes of different sports and at different competitiveness levels at UK Universities. A survey carried out which used the alcohol use disorders identification test audit was used on 770 undergraduates that consisted of 298males and 471 females from 7 UK Universities. The mean score overall was 9.5 which was higher than the cut-point for the designation of an alcohol use disorder. The audit showed that 61% of participants as having an alcohol use disorder, 39% of the overall were classed as ''low risk drinkers'', 41% as ''hazardous drinkers'', 11% as ''harmful drinkers'' and 9% as ''probable dependence''. The audit test also revealed that 85% of students who played in team sports such as rugby, soccer, and hockey were classed as having an alcohol use disorder. The findings showed that students who played team sports have a higher level of alcohol consumption than students who don't play sports in the UK Universities. The findings also suggest that sports participation could be a risk factor for future alcohol related problems.
2.1.3 Organisations in Ireland
According to the Oireachtas committees 2013: from the steering group report on national substance misuse strategy, the government was considering the implementation of recommendations from the report but wanted to seek and establish the views of the various organisations involved. The steer group report on national substance misuse strategy wanted legislation put forward to the phasing out of alcohol sponsorship of sport in Ireland. The organisations involved and present at the meeting were the I.R.F.U, the GAA, the F.A.I, and alcohol action Ireland, the college of psychiatrics, Horse Racing Ireland, the federation of Irish sports and the drinks industry group of Ireland. This meeting focused on the arguments and recommendations of each of the associations.
The IRFU stated that it aims to develop the healthy lifestyles through promoting sport, it also promotes alcohol awareness and advocates for the responsible use of alcohol. It believes it can play a vital role in assisting the department of health through education in the communities its serves. They believe there is no evidence that suggests alcohol sponsorship of sports links to alcohol misuse. The IRFU believe the development of there awareness and education action plan shows there commitment to the government, and believe it will have a long-term impact. The IRFU believe the banning of alcohol sponsorship would decrease their annual income, it would effect rugby clubs who are already under financial strain, would have a major effect on the countries bid for the world cup in 2023, would effect the ability of funding for national teams and visitors to the country, and lastly they believe its not possible to replace the funding alcohol promotion provides in the current economic climate.
The GAA admits that there is alcohol misuse particularly with young people, but does not accept that there is enough evidence in place to put a ban on sports sponsorship and that a ban on sports sponsorship wouldn't have any impact on reducing misuse. The GAA has followed the steps of the World Health Organisation and the HSE in creating an abuse prevention program which was set up in 2006, its a short intervention program to help a person that was identified as having a drinking problem and aims to help people make a positive change in there life towards alcohol use. The GAA believe the banning of alcohol sponsorship would only increase financial pressure on the GAA and their clubs. It suggests that the government should pass legislation on getting alcohol more difficult and expensive would be more effective.
The FAI has used late night football leagues to combat social issues such as underage drinking. Garda research has shown there to be a 26% reduction on ant-social behaviour since the establishment of late night football leagues. The FAI now more than ever has to rely on commercial sponsorship such as alcohol sponsorship because of the economic downturn, as this type of sponsorship allows the FAI to run various programs. In biding for major tournaments such as euro 2020, which would boost the economy, could be jeopardised if an alcohol sponsorship ban was put in place. The association believe the way forward to addressing alcohol abuse is to increase the promotion of sport in schools to promote healthy lifestyles.
Alcohol Action Ireland is an independent voice that is an advocate for change in the policy to reduce alcohol related harm in Ireland. It states that Ireland has a alcohol problem with 1,200 alcohol related deaths each year. 10% of children have being affected by alcohol because of parents drinking habits, which is estimated for one sixth of child abuse and neglect. They believe that children witness positive alcohol adverts that are fun, sociable and sport related that promotes alcohol consumption. The World Health Organisations criteria identify young Irish men as needing a health intervention. Alcohol is the main factor in half of all suicides in Ireland as victims are intoxicated at the time. Alcohol Action Ireland also believe alcohol is being promoted by the rugby, soccer and GAA in an inappropriate way that targets children to commence drinking as a sign of loyalty to the brand. This group stated that there is evidence that sports sponsorship of alcohol influences children and suggests that the link between sport and alcohol should be broke.
The college of psychiatrics revealed to the committee that all promotion of alcohol should be banned. Through the use of technology, such as TV, social networking, sponsorship of sporting events encourages strong pro-alcohol social norms. The national suicide research foundation stated that denial is an indicator of alcoholism with alcoholics believing they need to drink alcohol to feel normal and also a similar context is in alcohol sponsorship.
Horse Racing Ireland stated that alcohol sponsorship is one of the key sponsors of horse racing, it exceeds 1 million per year in sponsorship. Horse Racing Ireland does not allow the sponsorship that is seen as inappropriate and ensures that their racecourses apply there codes of practice. Research has identified the average age of a racing fan is 35 and that racing plays a responsible role in society in a safe environment and that it differs from dangerous drinking that takes place in larger anti-social communities. Horse racing Ireland believe a ban on alcohol sponsorship would be meaningless because of technology devices that doesn't recognise international borders, with the use of mobile phones, laptops and even TV's as it broadcasts British racing channels.
The Federation of Irish Sport is an independent voice on behalf of all sports organisations in Ireland, the main issues of the federation is funding for sports organisations as it is a key concern as it can significantly reduce funding levels. The federation believe this is not the time to be banning any sponsor involved with sport in the current economic climate as it will hinder the development of sporting organisations. This group believe that the committee should not be banning alcohol sponsorship because if it were to be introduced other bans might be taken into consideration on food, soft drinks and gambling.
Drinks industry Ireland is in support of measures to reduce alcohol misuse through educational strategies but is against bans that have no effect on society. It states that programs such as drinkaware.ie have being effective as the overall consumption of alcohol has fallen by 19% since 2001. It doesn't recognise that there is a link between alcohol sponsorship and sport in this country and questions the studies done in Australia and New Zealand as there studies talk of free alcohol being consumed which is not happening in the Irish market.
The committee came up with the suggestions that; alcohol sponsorship in sport should remain in place until alternative funding is identified, sporting organisations should produce a code of conduct for consumption of alcohol in stadiums, a percentage of the funding from alcohol sponsorship should be put in place for alcohol abuse programs, sponsorship of sports should be treated the same as sponsoring events such as music art and other festivals.

2.1.4 Social Norms
Lewis, T (2008); Research was carried out in Carolina, America to investigate student athlete drinking behaviours, there roles as team leaders, risk involved in high alcohol consumption and coaches attitudes towards alcohol consumption. A questionnaire was produced to 211 college athletes; the results showed a high alcohol consumption level among the athletes, athletes who weren't team captains/leaders consumed in heavy drinking were highlighted as being at a greater risk with alcohol consumption. 80% of the athletes (male/female) participated in the questionnaire, it was an anonymous questionnaire as athletes were afraid they would be suspended from there sport for alcohol abuse. The questions on the questionnaire were based on social norms e.g. how many times a week do you drink, how much do you drink on occasion, how much do you think teammates drink on occasion. Some other questions were based on the drinking perceptions of normal college students to find out the frequency and measure of alcohol consumption among students. Other questions were based on the perceptions of risk, like what risks are athletes facing as a result of over-indulgence with alcohol. There was also question on coaches e.g. how strict are coaches on alcohol consumption? The results of the questionnaire showed even with the perceived risks associated with alcohol consumption among college athletes, they engage in heavy alcohol consumption regardless of the consequences they may face. Team captains/leaders appear to binge drink more because of the added pressure of being the team captain/leader and not because of the consequences from there coaches. Coaches appear to be more lenient than strict on alcohol consumption and one could say even overlook alcohol consumption, so this is a reason why team captains/leaders don't feel anxious about the consequences they may face from there coaches. This report also suggested that interventions would help reduce and highlight alcohol consumption among athletes in colleges and also that team coaches have to be more tolerant and communicate through the team captains/leaders that over-indulging in alcohol will not be accepted.

2.1.5 Hazardous Drinking Among Sports Athletes
O'Brieni. K (2007); The aim of this article was to see the drinking behaviours of sports athletes and to establish the relationship and drinking motives and dangerous drinking across the different levels of sport. The writer assessed hazardous drinking on the WHO's audit questionnaire and the physiological reasons for dinking. The writer also explains the results found and peoples different reasons for drinking hazardously.
According to O'Brieni, K (2007): Hazardous drinking behaviours differed across levels of sporting participation, with elite-provincial sportspeople showing the highest level of hazardous drinking, club/social sportspeople the next highest and elite-international sportspeople the lowest. Sportspeople who placed a greater emphasis on drinking as a reward for participating in their sports tended to display more hazardous drinking behaviours, but other ADS motives differed over level of sporting participation. Elite-provincial sportspeople and elite-international sportspeople placed more emphasis on drinking as a way to cope with the stresses of participating in their sports.
Demers et al(2013); This article highlighted that dangerous drinking attitudes of sports people across levels of competition, people's reasons for dangerous drinking were to deal with stress and other reasons were that drinking is a reward for participating in sport.
The article reviews the impact of higher education institutional alcohol-control policies on students' drinking. The data was drawn from the 2004 Canadian Campus Survey, a large epidemiological survey examining the social determinants of addiction and mental health among full-time undergraduates enrolled in Canadian universities. This review is widely related to the over indulgence of alcohol within the student lifestyle.
The author's Demers, Andree, Beauregard, Nancy, Gliksman, Louis suggests that students who live on campus away from home have a higher probability in consuming alcohol to students who live at home with parents or guardians and commute to college. It is stated that 'It is now widely recognized that college drinking is a multifactorial phenomenon'. The article main research is the social determinants to the students part taking in alcohol consumption and it is outlined by the structural properties of the social interactions which most commonly define students' drinking occasions (e.g., size of drinking group, level of proximity among drinking group members, group gender composition), and the temporal (e.g., day of the week, circumstances of the drinking events) and spatial elements of the drinking occasion (e.g., on/off campus drinking, campus communities) have been associated to students' drinking patterns (Demers et al., 2002) Consequently, a major contribution of this body of work highlights the fact that students' individual patterns of alcohol consumption are far from being static, and fluctuations observed in that respect can be best conceived as a function of both individual and contextual factors. Results of this study suggest that the place of residence is an important determinant modulating students' drinking outcomes and interactions with higher education institutions.

This article showed some interesting outcomes such as where the student lives portrays evidence that peer pressure of drinking and the value of social interaction plays an integral role into the participation of drinking. This was a very interesting piece of research and some of the finding will be very beneficial to our thesis and concluding results.
Wahesh et al (2013); this article studies the basis that College student-athletes and first-year students are two undergraduate populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. It states that first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives, alcohol-related negative consequences, and season status. It is believed that alcohol consumption by undergraduate students remains a significant public health issue on college campuses in the United States.
Research has demonstrated that college student athletes engaged in more heavy episodic drinking occasions, endorsed drinking on more peak drinking occasions and reported getting drunk more often than their non-athletic peers (Turrisi, Mastroleo, Mallett, Larimer, & Kilmer,2007) According to the National Collegiate Athletic Association over 83% of college student-athletes reported past year alcohol consumption and approximately 49% of those reporting heavy episodic drinking on one or more occasions. Indeed, student-athletes have been shown to experience alcohol-related consequences at higher rates compared to their non-athlete peers. These consequences range from academic problems such as missing classes to more physiological issues such as memory loss as a result from drinking too much alcohol. Researchers have attempted to identify the motivational factors which influence high risk drinking behaviours. It was found during the research that athletes did not feel the urge to part take in drinking during season sports due to the fact they were getting their social interaction with the teams they played with. Participants completed a questionnaire and used the method of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The AUDIT-C (Bush, Kivlahan, McDonell, Fihn, & Bradley, 1998) consists of the first three items of the AUDIT (Babor, Higgins-Biddle, Saunders, & Monteiro, 2001). This audit was aimed at the frequency of their drinking habits.
This article was of benefit as it is related to the area of research we plan on commencing such as the questionnaire and introduced and explained the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) which could be used as a method of collecting data. Study findings reveal several important implications for the delivery of prevention and intervention methods with first-year college student-athletes. This may be attained during our research if the right methods are followed.
2.1.6 College Athletes and Alcohol Consumption
College athletes are known to have a higher alcohol consumption rate and more alcohol related problems than non-athlete peers. Although college athletes and non college athletes face some of the same problems athletes have many unique consequences. Previous studies has shown that alcohol has many negative affects on athletes, such as dehydration, delayed muscle recovery, and an increased risk of injury. College athletes are unique to non-college athletes in terms of alcohol misuse, for example research has shown that when athletes are in off season they forget about there sport, leadership role and associate the off season with increased alcohol use. Another reason for this type of misuse of alcohol is sport achievement orientation. The purpose of this investigation was to look at the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. These athletes completed a sports orientation questionnaire which assessed sport-related achievement orientation on 3 scales (competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation). Athletes also complete measures of alcohol use and alcohol related problems.
The results of the sports orientation questionnaire showed that competitiveness, win orientation and goal orientation were all associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol related problems.
According to Brenner et al, (2007); the object of this study was to describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. There were a total number of 720 participants who either participated in a team or individual sporting field. There were greater percentages of team sport athletes reporting this behaviour than athletes of individual sports, and there were significant differences according to level of competition. In addition to drinking a greater amount of alcohol, college athletes were also found to consume alcohol more frequently then non-athletes. Wechsler et al found that 59% of college's with athletics programs provided alcohol education for athletes. Alcohol consumption by college athletes may vary according to time of year and sport. Martin reported that 56% of college athletes reported binge drinking out of the competitive season, whereas 35% binge drank in season. Out of the 9 colleges where the survey was taken there were 57 eligible sports to choose from. There may be important psychological aspects of athlete bonding and team sport psychology, when compared with individual sports, which could affect alcohol consumption by college athletes. To conclude the college athletes in this study reported high-risk alcohol use at percentages much higher then was previously reported.
This article was of benefit to the research carried out due to the basis of it widely being related to alcohol intake levels between different sporting teams in America, research similar to this will be carried out but on a smaller scale restricted to college teams in I.T. Sligo. This article was interesting to get a grasp of the facts and figures from another country and to compare and contrast these figures to other findings.
Gutgesell et al (2013); in this journal article some of the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on human exercise and sport performance are examined. It is divided into acute and chronic metabolic and physiological effects of alcohol on exercise performance, primarily in humans and epidemiological evidence of the associations between alcohol use and problem alcohol behaviours in various athletic groups. Normal subjects that have one drink per night for 10 consecutive nights had no change in strength power or endurance exercise performance. This shows that drinking in moderation has no adverse health effects that are associated with when people binge drink. In contrast to the social drinker alcoholic subjects have decreased maximal muscle power in exercise testing. Exercising soon after drinking alcohol can make this dehydration worse because you sweat as your body temperature rises. Combined, sweating and the diuretic effect of exercise make dehydration much more likely. According to Whyte dehydration leads to reduced performance. During exercise, your muscles burn sugar producing lactic acid. Too much lactic acid leads to muscle fatigue and cramps. Alcohol is used in all aspects of life including sports, Alcohol consumption varies in athletes and may decrease within student athletes through proper educational effort. It states that reduced availability of alcoholic beverages at sporting events such as football stadiums may help prevent the social acceptance of drinking at sports.
I think this is of particular interest to us as we need to learn facts behind the reasons alcohol and sports is not a good combination so looking at the facts from an article like this may help answer questions that may be presented in the case of a question being asked while handing out surveys within sports club in IT Sligo.
2.1.7 Alcohol Sponsorship of Sport
Jones, S. (2010); Fosters beer had the naming rights of Australia's one day cricket series and launched its vb bonanza campaign in 2005-06 series. The campaign included TV commercials, online, sponsorship, point of sale and a range of other promotions and was built around talking figurine called 'talking boony' that was the same size as a can of beer. A former cricket player owned talking boony and was labelled an icon for being a great cricket player but mostly because he resembled a cricket fan in the stands drinking beer. He was called an icon in the sport because he drank 52 cans of beer on a flight from Australia to London on a successful ashes tour. The boony figurine had a microchip in it that spoke an hour before the match saying 'the match is about to start get me a beer', 'nachos are good with beer' and 'hey get me a beer'.
The boony figurine got criticised by public health for advertising and enticing people to binge drink, and that it would have a negative effect on the already bad drinking culture of cricket clubs.
The advertising industry however awarded the campaign in London and labelled it as an innovative campaign for fosters and in June 06 it won a lion award at the Cannes international festival for the talking boony promotion.
People think that alcohol sponsorship is reduced in sports sponsorship but it doesn't appear to be the case in Australia as the media and politicians seem to be in favour of the alcohol sponsorship, which is not good for children watching these sports. In conclusion it suggests that the link between alcohol and sport should broken, because its becoming so strong in Australia in the high profile sports of cricket and rugby they are now see sports sponsorships of alcohol.
According to Jones. S (2010) pg.250-261: Drinking behaviours and attitudes are strongly influenced by social and cultural norms and by the social situation in which alcohol is consumed (e.g. Greenfield & Room, 1997; McDaniel et al, 2001).
The close association between alcohol and sport is a particular problem, with evidence that young people who watch televised sport are exposed to extensive alcohol advertising (Centre on Alcohol
Marketing and Youth, 2003) and that those young people who are sports fans drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related problems (Nelson & Weschler, 2003). Among Australian teenagers and young adults consumption of alcohol is typically associated with sport as an important component of post-game celebrations (McGuifficke et al, 1991).
However, it is also associated with the general ethos of being part of the team, and men in particular are more likely to drink excessively when socialising with members of their sporting team than with other groups of friends (Black et al, 1999).Australia has been described as 'a model case where alcohol and sport are united in a close partnership' (Munro, 2000, p.199).
For example, a survey among Queensland-based surf lifesaving, rugby union and Australian Rules football club patrons found that 40% usually drank five or more alcoholic drinks on each visit, 22% drank seven or more, and 5% drank 13 or more (Connolly, 2006); this is significantly more than the recommended maximum of four standard drinks (National Health & Medical Research Council, 2009). Australian studies have shown that non-elite sportspeople consume excessive levels of alcohol, and that members of male sporting teams feel pressured to drink alcohol because of the masculine image of sporting activity and Friendship. (Lawson & Evans, 1992).
2.1.8 Conclusion
The literature reviewed highlights alcohol abuse in this country and in other countries. It shows that alcohol abuse is present among sporting associations such as the GAA, College teams in the U.K and sporting organisations in Australia and New Zealand. People views to alcohol seem to be of a lack of understanding about the real dangers of alcohol, alcohol abuse and alcohol related harm. This research indicates that 3rd level college team sport players and the general public need to be educated differently on sensible consumption of alcohol.

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